Shields AF, Grierson JR, Dohmen BM, Machulla HJ, Stayanoff JC, Lawhorn-Crews JM, *et al*.: **Imaging proliferation in vivo with [F-18]FLT and positron emission tomography.** *Nat Med* 1998,**4**(11):1334–1336. 10.1038/3337

Article
CAS
PubMed
Google Scholar

Rudin M: *Molecular Imaging--Basic Principles and Applications in Biomedical Research*. London: Imperial College Press; 2005.

Book
Google Scholar

Buck AK, Halter G, Schirrmeister H, Kotzerke J, Wurziger I, Glatting G, *et al*.: **Imaging proliferation in lung tumors with PET: 18F-FLT versus 18F-FDG.** *J Nucl Med* 2003,**44**(9):1426–1431.

CAS
PubMed
Google Scholar

Ullrich R, Backes H, Li H, Kracht L, Miletic H, Kesper K, *et al*.: **Glioma proliferation as assessed by 3'-fluoro-3'-deoxy-L-thymidine positron emission tomography in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade glioma.** *Clin Cancer Res* 2008, **14:** 2049–2055. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-1553

Article
CAS
PubMed
Google Scholar

Kenny LM, Vigushin DM, Al-Nahhas A, Osman S, Luthra SK, Shousha S, *et al*.: **Quantification of cellular proliferation in tumor and normal tissues of patients with breast cancer by [F-18]fluorothymidine-positron emission tomography imaging: evaluation of analytical methods.** *Cancer Res* 2005,**65**(21):10104–10112. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-4297

Article
CAS
PubMed
Google Scholar

Buck AK, Bommer M, Stilgenbauer S, Juweid M, Glatting G, Schirrmeister H, *et al*.: **Molecular imaging of proliferation in malignant lymphoma.** *Cancer Res* 2006,**66**(22):11055–11061. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-1955

Article
CAS
PubMed
Google Scholar

Mourik JEM, van Velden FHP, Lubberink M, Kloet RW, van Berckel BNM, Lammertsma AA, *et al*.: **Image derived input functions for dynamic high resolution research tomograph PET brain studies.** *Neuroimage* 2008,**43**(4):676–686. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.07.035

Article
PubMed
Google Scholar

Germano G, Chen BC, Huang SC, Gambhir SS, Hoffman EJ, Phelps ME: **Use of the abdominal aorta for arterial input function determination in hepatic and renal PET studies.** *J Nucl Med* 1992,**33**(4):613–620.

CAS
PubMed
Google Scholar

Watabe H, Channing MA, Riddell C, Jousse F, Libutti SK, Carrasquillo JA, *et al*.: **Noninvasive estimation of the aorta input function for measurement of tumor blood flow with.** *IEEE Trans Med Imaging* 2001,**20**(3):164–174. 10.1109/42.918468

Article
CAS
PubMed
Google Scholar

Asselin MC, Cunningham VJ, Amano S, Gunn RN, Nahmias C: **Parametrically defined cerebral blood vessels as non-invasive blood input functions for brain PET studies.** *Phys Med Biol* 2004,**49**(6):1033–1054. 10.1088/0031-9155/49/6/013

Article
PubMed
Google Scholar

Zanotti-Fregonara P, Fadaili EM, Maroy R, Comtat C, Souloumiac A, Jan S, *et al*.: **Comparison of eight methods for the estimation of the image-derived input function in dynamic [(18)F]-FDG PET human brain studies.** *J Cereb Blood Flow Metab* 2009,**29**(11):1825–1835. 10.1038/jcbfm.2009.93

Article
PubMed
Google Scholar

Sundaram SK, Freedman NMT, Carrasquillo JA, Carson JM, Whatley M, Libutti SK, *et al*.: **Simplified kinetic analysis of tumor 18F-FDG uptake: a dynamic approach.** *J Nucl Med* 2004,**45**(8):1328–1333.

CAS
PubMed
Google Scholar

Bentourkia M: **Kinetic modeling of PET data without blood sampling.** *IEEE* 2005,**52**(3):697–702.

CAS
Google Scholar

Shields AF, Briston DA, Chandupatla S, Douglas KA, Lawhorn-Crews J, Collins JM, *et al*.: **A simplified analysis of [**^{18}
**F]3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine metabolism and retention.** *Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging* 2005,**32**(11):1269–1275.

Article
CAS
PubMed
Google Scholar

Cook GJ, Lodge MA, Marsden PK, Dynes A, Fogelman I: **Non-invasive assessment of skeletal kinetics using fluorine-18 fluoride positron emission tomography: evaluation of image and population-derived arterial input functions.** *Eur J Nucl Med* 1999,**26**(11):1424–1429. 10.1007/s002590050474

Article
CAS
PubMed
Google Scholar

Takikawa S, Dhawan V, Spetsieris P, Robeson W, Chaly T, Dahl R, *et al*.: **Noninvasive quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose PET studies with an estimated input function derived from a population-based arterial blood curve.** *Radiology* 1993,**188**(1):131–136.

Article
CAS
PubMed
Google Scholar

Eberl S, Anayat AR, Fulton RR, Hooper PK, Fulham MJ: **Evaluation of two population-based input functions for quantitative neurological FDG PET studies.** *Eur J Nucl Med* 1997,**24**(3):299–304.

CAS
PubMed
Google Scholar

Kissel J, Port RE, Zaers J, Bellemann ME, Strauss LG, Haberkorn U, *et al*.: **Noninvasive determination of the arterial input function of an anticancer drug from dynamic PET scans using the population approach.** *Med Phys* 1999,**26**(4):609–615. 10.1118/1.598560

Article
CAS
PubMed
Google Scholar

Kim SJ, Lee JS, Im KC, Kim SY, Park SA, Lee SJ, *et al*.: **Kinetic modeling of 3 '-deoxy-3 '-F-18-fluorothymidine for quantitative cell proliferation imaging in subcutaneous tumor models in mice.** *J Nucl Med* 2008,**49**(12):2057–2066. 10.2967/jnumed.108.053215

Article
PubMed
Google Scholar

Menda Y, Ponto LLB, Dornfeld KJ, Tewson TJ, Watkins GL, Schultz MK, *et al*.: **Kinetic analysis of 3 '-deoxy-3 '-F-18-fluorothymidine (F-18-FLT) in head and neck cancer patients before and early after initiation of chemoradiation therapy.** *J Nucl Med* 2009,**50**(7):1028–1035. 10.2967/jnumed.108.058495

Article
CAS
PubMed Central
PubMed
Google Scholar

Visvikis D, Francis D, Mulligan R, Costa DC, Croasdale I, Luthra SK, *et al*.: **Comparison of methodologies for the in vivo assessment of (FLT)-F-18 utilisation in colorectal cancer.** *Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging* 2004,**31**(2):169–178. 10.1007/s00259-003-1339-2

Article
CAS
PubMed
Google Scholar

de Langen AJ, Klabbers B, Lubberink M, Boellaard R, Spreeuwenberg MD, Slotman BJ, *et al*.: **Reproducibility of quantitative F-18–3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine measurements using positron emission tomography.** *Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging* 2009,**36**(3):389–395. 10.1007/s00259-008-0960-5

Article
PubMed
Google Scholar

Backes H, Ullrich R, Neumaier B, Kracht L, Wienhard K, Jacobs AH: **Noninvasive quantification of F-18-FLT human brain PET for the assessment of tumour proliferation in patients with high-grade glioma.** *Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging* 2009,**36**(12):1960–1967. 10.1007/s00259-009-1244-4

Article
PubMed Central
PubMed
Google Scholar

Kenny L, Coombes RC, Vigushin DM, Al-Nahhas A, Shousha S, Aboagye EO: **Imaging early changes in proliferation at 1 week post chemotherapy: a pilot study in breast cancer patients with 3'-deoxy-3'-[**^{18}
**F]fluorothymidine positron emission tomography.** *Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging* 2007,**34**(9):1339–1347. 10.1007/s00259-007-0379-4

Article
PubMed
Google Scholar

Coleman TF, Li Y: **On the convergence of reflective Newton methods for large-scale nonlinear minimization subject to bounds.** 1994,**67**(2):189–224.

Google Scholar

Coleman TF, Li Y: **An interior, trust region approach for nonlinear minimization subject to bounds.** *SIAM J Optim* 1996, **6:** 418–445. 10.1137/0806023

Article
Google Scholar

Muzi M, Mankoff DA, Grierson JR, Wells JM, Vesselle H, Krohn KA: **Kinetic modeling of 3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine in somatic tumors: mathematical studies.** *J Nucl Med* 2005,**46**(2):371–380.

CAS
PubMed
Google Scholar

Mankoff DA, Shields AF, Graham MM, Link JM, Krohn KA: **A graphical analysis method to estimate blood-to-tissue transfer constants for tracers with labeled metabolites.** *J Nucl Med* 1996,**37**(12):2049–2057.

CAS
PubMed
Google Scholar