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Table 2 Patient and procedure characteristics for visualization and non-visualization

From: An analysis of SPECT/CT non-visualization of sentinel lymph nodes in renal tumors

  Visualization N and % or median and IQR Non-visualization N and % or median and IQR
Number of patients 46 (63%) 27 (37%)
Gender
 Female 22 (47.8%) 14 (51.9%)
 Male 24 (52.2%) 13 (48.1%)
Age, years (median, IQR) 56 (49–63) 62 (54–70)
Age above 59 years 21 (45.7%) 17 (63%)
Age below 59 years 25 (54.3%) 10 (37%)
BMI (median, IQR) 27 (23–30) 26 (24–32)
Size of the tumor (cm) (median, IQR) 5.6 cm (4.1–7.0) 6.5 cm (5.0–8.0)
Tumor location
 Side
  Right 23 (50%) 13 (48.1%)
  Left 23 (50%) 14 (51.9%)
 Polarity
  Upper pole 12 (26.1%) 3 (11.1%)
  Intermedial pole 17 (37%) 14 (51.9%)
  Lower pole 17 (37%) 10 (37.1%)
 Axial position
  Posterior 19 (41.3%) 14 (51.9%)
  Anterior 27 (58.7%) 13 (48.1%)
Renal score
 Low risk 7 (15.2%) 5 (18.5%)
 Moderate risk 11 (23.9%) 7 (25.9%)
 High risk 28 (60.9%) 15 (55.6%)
pTstage
 T1a 9 (19.6%) 2 (7.4%)
 T1b 26 (56.5%) 17 (63%)
 T2a 4 (8.7%) 4 (14.8%)
 T2b 2 (4.3%) 1 (3.7%)
 T3a 5 (10.9%) 3 (11.1%)
pNstage
 N0 44 (95.7%) 21 (77.8%)
 N1 1 (2.2%) 1 (3.7%)
 Nx 1 (2.2%) 5 (18.5%)
Histology
 ccRCC 30 (65.2%) 22 (81.5%)
 Pap I 5 (10.9%) 2 (7.4%)
 Pap II 3 (6.5%) 1 (3.7%)
 Chromophobe 4 (8.7%) 1 (3.7%)
 Oncocytoma 3 (6.5%) 0
 Fibrous tumor 1 (2.2%) 0
 NOS 0 1 (3.7%)
Fuhrman grade
 I 4 (8.9%) 4 (14.8%)
 II 12 (26.7%) 12 (44.4%)
 III 13 (28.9%) 3 (11.1%)
 IV 0 4 (14.8%)
 NA 17 (37.8%) 4 (14.8%)
Leibovich score
 Low 18 (39%) 10 (37%)
 Intermediate 13 (28.3%) 9 (33.3%)
 High 4 (8.7%) 4 (14.8%)
 NA 11 (23.9%) 4 (14.8%)
Lymphovascular invasion
 Yes 4 (8.7%) 2 (7.4%)
 No 42 (91.3%) 25 (92.6%)
Necrosis in histology
 Yes 16 (34.8%) 15 (55.6%)
 No 30 (65.2%) 12 (44.4%)
Necrosis on imaging
 Yes 4 (8.7%) 5 (18.5%)
 No 42 (91.3%) 22 (81.5%)
SN radioactivity detected with γ-probe and camera
 Yes 40 (87.0%) 5 (18%)
 No 6 (13.0%) 22 (81.5%)
Injection modality
 UH 45 (97.8%) 27 (100%)
 CT 1 (2.2%) 0
99mTc dose, MBq (median, IQR) 209 (187–222) 212 (196–218)
Number of injections
 1 injection 27 (58.7%) 18 (66.7%)
 2 injections 18 (39.1%) 9 (33.3%)
 3 injections 1 (2.2%) 0
Spillage
 Yes 13 (28.3%) 4 (14.8%)
 No 30 (65.2%) 17 (63%)
 NA 3 (6.5%) 6 (22.2%)
Depot properly Injected
 Yes 30 (65.2%) 14 (51.9%)
 No 2 (4.3%) 1 (3.7%)
 NA 14 (30.4%) 12 (44.4%)
Anterior depot 19 (41.3%) 11 (40.7%)
Posterior depot 18 (39.1%) 9 (33.3%)
Not anterior nor posterior 9 (19.6%) 7 (25.9%)
Number of depots
 1 26 (59.1%) 13 (48.1%)
 2 17 (38.6%) 5 (18.5%)
 3 0 2 (7.4%)
 Data not available 3 (6.5%) 7 (25.9%)
SN visualization
 On early planar scintigraphy 5 (10.9%) NA
 On late planar scintigraphy 9 (19.6%)  
 On early planar scintigraphy combined with SPECT/CT 32 (69.6%)  
SN number on imaging (mean, IQR, sum) 1.1 (0–2, 80) NA
SN number harvested at surgery (mean, IQR, sum) 2.1 (0–3, 155) NA
Non SN number harvested at surgery (mean, IQR, sum) 3.0 (0–4, 220) NA
Time between injection and 1st imaging in minutes (median, IQR) 28 min (15 min–65 min) 28 min (15 min–1 h 5 min)
Time between injection and 2nd Imaging in minutes (median, IQR) 149 min (175 min–188 min) 182 min (139 min–194 min)
Kidney/liver activity ratio at early scintigraphy (median, IQR) 22.4 (4.0–51.6) 6.6 (1.5–17.6)
Kidney/liver activity ratio at late scintigraphy (median, IQR) 10.7 (3.7–26.9) 3.6 (1.5–11.4)
  1. BMI body mass index, IQR interquartile range, SN sentinel node, NA not applicable