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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the healthy controls (HCs) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with differing levels of treatment resistance

From: Beta-amyloid deposition in patients with major depressive disorder with differing levels of treatment resistance: a pilot study

Characteristic HCs MDD patients P value
Mild treatment resistance Moderate-to-severe treatment resistance
No. of subjects 18 29 33  
Age (years)     0.537
 Mean ± SD 68.6 ± 5.5 66.6 ± 6.8 65.0 ± 5.7  
 Median (IQR) 68 (64.8–73.0) 65.0 (61.5–71.0) 66.0 (61.5–68.5)  
Female gender, n (%) 11 (61.0) 22 (75.9) 25 (75.8) 0.47
Education (years)     0.065
 Mean ± SD 9.8 ± 3.9 7.2 ± 4.2 8.7 ± 4.0  
 Median (IQR) 12 (6.0–12.5) 6.0 (6.0–10.5) 6.0 (6.0–12.0)  
HAM-D     <0.001***
 Mean ± SD 2.0 ± 1.5 4.9 ± 3.5a* 10.4 ± 6.5a***,b**  
 Median (IQR) 1.5(1.0–2.3) 3.0(2.0–7.5) 8.0(6.0–14.5)  
MMSE     <0.002**
 Mean ± SD 27.3 ± 1.8 25.2 ± 2.4a** 24.7 ± 3.1a**  
 Median (IQR) 28 (26.8–28.3) 26.0 (24.0–27.0) 25.5 (22.5–27.0)  
ApoE ε4, n (%) 2 (11.1) 5 (17.2) 9 (27.3) 0.347
FSRS     0.998
 Mean ± SD 8.5 ± 1.9 8.7 ± 4.4 8.6 ± 4.1  
 Median (IQR) 9.0 (7.0–10.0) 10.0 (4.5–12.5) 9.0 (5.5–12)  
Homocysteine (μmol/l)     0.299
 Mean ± SD 8.6 ± 1.8 8.9 ± 2.6 9.8 ± 2.9  
 Median (IQR) 8.7 (7.3–9.5) 8.6 (7.0–10.7) 9.4 (7.6–11.1)  
Age at onset (years)    0.122
 Mean ± SD 57.2 ± 12.5 53.8 ± 9.9  
 Median (IQR) 57.0 (49.5–65.5) 53.0 (49.0–60.0)  
Duration of MDD (years)    0.183
 Mean ± SD 9.3 ± 9.5 11.3 ± 9.0  
 Median (IQR) 8.0 (1.5–11.5) 10.5 (5.0–13.0)  
Number of depressive episodes    0.005**
 Mean ± SD 1.6 ± 0.6 2.5 ± 1.4b**  
 Median (IQR) 1.0 (1.0–2.0) 2.0 (2.0–3.0)  
Late-onset MDD, n (%) 14 (48.3) 9 (33) 0.088
MSM score    <0.001***
 Mean ± SD 4.1 ± 1.0 8.4 ± 2.4b***  
 Median (IQR) 4.0 (3.0–5.0) 9.0 (7.0–10.0)  
CDR 0.5, n (%) 12 (41.4) 25 (80.6)b** 0.002**
CDR-SB     0.001**
 Mean ± SD   0.3 ± 0.5 1.0 ± 0.7b**  
 Median (IQR) 0 (0.0–0.5) 1 (0.3–1.5)  
  1. HAM-D 17-item Hamilton depression rating scale, FSRS Framingham stroke risk score, MMSE Mini Mental Status Examination, ApoE ε4 apolipoprotein E ε4 carrier, MSM Maudsley staging method, CDR Clinical Dementia Rating scale, CDR-SB Clinical Dementia Rating–Sum of Boxes
  2. aSignificant difference as compared with HCs: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001
  3. bSignificant difference as compared with MDD patients with mild treatment resistance: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001