Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of histological classification by Petty et al.[24]

From: A comparative 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging of experimental Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis and Staphylococcus epidermidis foreign-body-associated infection in the rabbit tibia

Infection grade Periosteal reaction Cortex Medullary canal
0 Often absent; if present, laminated and limited to 1 to 2 thin layers; eccentric and often related to off-center drill defect Haversian canals small and repair rate slow; polymorphonuclear leukocytes not in granulation tissue; occasional subperiosteal resorptive pockets, but no polymorphonuclear leukocytes Quick repair with woven bone; inflammatory cells range from none to foci of many intact polymorphonuclear leukocytes; these leukocytes associated with macrophage clean-up; diffuse process
1 Usually laminated with 1 to 2 layers; often eccentric but not related to off-center drill defect Occasional polymorphonuclear leukocytes in Haversian canals Subtle, diffuse increase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes; microabscesses present, but hard to find
2 Sunburst type; often nearly circumferential; no apparent cause Focally enlarged Haversian canals filled with granulation tissue and fragmented polymorphonuclear leukocytes; occasional microabscess Definite diffuse increase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes with fragmented forms; several definite microabscesses
3 Florid, always sunburst type; circumferential Subperiosteal, endosteal, and intracortical resorption associated with fragmented polymorphonuclear leukocytes; microabscesses Many microabscesses or great increase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes diffusely
4    As above, but with sinus-tract formation and soft-tissue microabscesses