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Table 1 FDA-approved drugs for the treatment of metastatic melanoma

From: Magnetic nanoparticles in theranostics of malignant melanoma

Drug Active ingredient Mechanism FDA approval
Dacarbazine Imidazole carboxamide, alkylating agent Cytostatic; blocks cell division by methylation of DNA component 1975
Interferon a-2b Cytokine Adjuvant therapy, immunostimulant 1995
Interleukin -2 (IL-2) Cytokine Adjuvant therapy, immunostimulant 1998
Vemurafenib Small molecule Protein kinase inhibitor targeting mutated BRAF 2011
Ipilimumab Antibody, checkpoint inhibitor Blocks the immune inhibitory receptor CTLA-4 2011
PEG-IFN alpha-2b Cytokine Adjuvant therapy with reduced clearance of agent 2011
Dabrafenib Small molecule Protein kinase inhibitor targeting mutated BRAF 2013
Trametinib Small molecule Protein kinase inhibitor targeting MEK1/2 2013
Dabrafenib + Trametinib Small molecules Protein kinase inhibitor targeting mutant BRAF and MEK1/2, respectively 2014
Nivolumab Antibody, checkpoint inhibitor Blocks the immune inhibitory receptor PD-1 2014
Pembrolizumab Antibody, checkpoint inhibitor Blocks the immune inhibitory receptor PD-1 2014
Talimogene laherparepvec Modified herpes simplex virus Induction of cell lysis 2014
Vemurafenib + Cobimetinib Small molecules Protein kinase inhibitor targeting mutant BRAF and MEK1/2, respectively 2015
Nivolumab + Ipilimumab Antibodies, checkpoint inhibitors Block the immune inhibitory receptors PD-1 and CTLA-4, respectively 2015
Encorafenib + Binimetinib Small molecules Protein kinase inhibitor targeting mutant BRAF and MEK1/2, respectively 2018
Atezolimab + Vemurafenib + Cobimetinib Antibody and small molecules Immune checkpoint inhibitor against PD-L1 and protein kinase inhibitors 2020
  1. Table with chronological listing of drugs approved by the FDA for the treatment of malignant melanoma