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Box 1 EANM recommendations on the use of animal models in inflammatory musculoskeletal diseases

From: EANM recommendations based on systematic analysis of small animal radionuclide imaging in inflammatory musculoskeletal diseases

Validate the accuracy of your tracer in multiple strains, and consider model-dependent influence of sexes, age and arthritis-inducing trigger
Incorporate complementary immunological assays for cross-validating imaging findings, which will aid in the interpretation as well as better understanding tracer limitations
Define a relevant outcome measure in inflammatory musculoskeletal diseases in consensus, involving multiple stakeholders, e.g. clinicians, pharmaceutical companies, and regulatory bodies, on the relevant pathophysiological endpoints
Endorse the FAIR principle of your molecular imaging data in service of exchange of expertise across disciplines
Use more frequently a large animal model (sheep, pig, dog) since data from such a model are more easily translated to humans
Consider collaborative multi-centre studies, so that expertise in different disease models is combined
Present a statistical substantiation for the number of animals that have been used in your study
Report negative findings
Report whether your preclinical study will be followed up by a further study in humans