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Table 4 The calculated mean absorbed dose (Gy) deposited to the left and right kidneys resulted from application of the AI segmentation (labelled with “AI”) and the dose calculations performed by the experts (labelled with “Ex”)

From: Automated and robust organ segmentation for 3D-based internal dose calculation

Dose/Patient 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Avg.
L Kid Ex(Gy) 1.79 1.72 1.89 1.77 2.83 3.49 2.19 2.00  
R Kid Ex(Gy) 1.61 1.50 * 1.57 2.52 3.39 2.66 2.01  
L Kid AI(Gy) 1.77 1.56 1.85 1.82 2.82 3.34 1.74 2.16  
R Kid AI(Gy) 1.55 1.42 * 1.73 2.54 3.56 1.87 2.08  
L Kid Di(%) (-) 1 (-) 9 (-) 2 3 0 (-) 4 (-)20 8  
R Kid Di(%) (-) 4 (-) 5 * 10 1 5 (-)30 3  
Mean. Di(%) 2.5 7 2 6.5 0.5 4.5 25 5.5 6.7
  1. The relative differences (labelled with “Di”), for left, right and average are shown in the last 3 rows. (-) and * represent mass underestimation by the AI and lack of organ in the patient, respectively