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Table 1 Summary of studies on FAP-specific for non-malignant indications

From: Clinical results of fibroblast activation protein (FAP) specific PET for non-malignant indications: systematic review

Author Year Non-malignant Indication (patients) Tracer (patients) Key findings COI Funding
Heckmann et al. [5] 2020 Investigation of cardiovascular disease (229 patients) Not specified (229 patients) High signal intensities are correlated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity)
Focal enrichment patterns might be suggestive of underlying cardiovascular disease
Patent application Fellowship of the German Center for Cardiovascular Research
Xu et al. [43] 2020 Shoulder arthritis (1 patient) 68Ga-FAPI-04 (1 patient) FAPI-04 showed a strong uptake in the previously known arthritis None None
Shi et al.[44] 2020 Dilated cardiomyopathy/chronic heart failure (1 patient) 68Ga -FAPI-04 (1 patient) FAPI-04 showed an increased, heterogeneous uptake pattern
The strongest uptake was noted in the left ventricular inferior wall
None None
Schmidkonz et al. [6] 2020 IgG4-related disease (27 patients) 68Ga -FAPI-04 (27 patients) FAP-specific PET can visualize fibrosis in the absence of inflammation and therefore differentiate fibrotic from inflammatory activity Patent application German Research Foundation, European Research Council Starting Grant, ELAN and IZKF Fonds, Wilhelm Sander Stiftung, Federal Ministry of Education and Research
Hayrapetian et al. [45] 2020 Elastofibroma dorsi (1 patient) 68Ga -FAPI-46 (1 patient) FAPI-46 showed a moderate yet more intense uptake compared to FDG in an infrascapular elastofibroma dorsi Equity in Sofie Biosciences Molecular Imaging Research Grant for Junior Academic Faculty, Philippe Foundation Inc, ARC Foundation
Hao et al.[46] 2020 Tuberculosis (1 patient) 68Ga -FAPI-04 (1 patient) FAPI-04 showed an increased uptake in tuberculous lesions in brain, lung and spine compared to FDG None None
Chen et al.[4] 2020 Tuberculosis (2 patients)
Pancreatitis (1 patient)
Post-treatment inflammatory reactions (2 patients)
Esogastritis (2 patients)
Hepatic adenoma (1 patient)
Pancreatic cystadenoma (1 patient)
68Ga -FAPI-04 (9 patients) FAPI-04 showed an increased uptake in tuberculosis, pancreatitis and post treatment inflammatory reaction
No increased uptake could be found in esogastritis, hepatic adenoma and pancreatic cystadenoma
None National Natural Science Foundation of China, key medical health projects in Xiamen
Luo et al.[47] 2020 IgG4-related disease (26 patients) 68Ga -FAPI-04 (26 patients) FAPI-04 showed low background in the head and neck and was therefore more able to detect IgG4-related disease in this region None CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences
Shi et al.[48] 2020 Benign hepatic nodules with granulation tissue (1 patient) 68Ga -FAPI-04 (1 patient) The only benign hepatic tumor in the study showed a negligible uptake None National Natural Science Foundation of China, Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences
Pang et al.[49] 2020 Possible hormonotherapy-induced chronic inflammation of the adrenals (1 patient) Not specified (1 patient) FAP-specific PET showed bilateral enhancement of the adrenals in a patient on total androgen blockage None None
Zhao et al.[50] 2020 Hepatic adenoma (1 patient) Not specified (1 patient) FAP-specific PET showed low enhancement in three benign hepatic nodules in a patient with liver cirrhosis None None
Chen et al.[51] 2020 Benign pleural nodules (1 patient) Not specified (1 patient) FAP-specific PET showed low enhancement in benign pleural nodules but a focally increased uptake in a lung nodule which turned out to be a primary lung adenocarcinoma None None
Pan et al.[52] 2020 IgG4-related disease (1 patient) Not specified (1 patient) While FAP-specific PET showed uptake in regions that were negative on FDG-PET such as the lacrimal glands, most FDG-avid lymph nodes were negative None CAMS Initiative for Innovative Medicine
Luo et al.[53] 2020 Tumor-induced pancreatitis (1 patient) Not specified (1 patient) FAP-specific PET showed intense uptake of an enlarged pancreas with pancreatitis masking the presence of pancreatic cancer as the underlying cause None CAMS Initiative for Innovative Medicine
Totzeck et al.[51] 2019 Coronary artery disease/possible cardiotoxicity (1 patient) Not specified (1 patient) FAP-specific PET showed intense uptake in the left ventricle in a cancer patient with a history of coronary artery disease and chemotherapy but no current acute or chronic coronary syndromes None None
Luo et al.[55] 2019 IgG4-related disease (1 patient) Not specified (1 patient) While FAP-specific PET showed uptake in regions that were negative on FDG-PET such as the pancreas, most FDG-avid lymph nodes were negative None CAMS Initiative for Innovative Medicine
  1. COI, conflict of interest
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