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Table 1 Nanobodies for molecular imaging

From: Nanobody: a promising toolkit for molecular imaging and disease therapy

Target Nanobody (with the format of nanobody) Tracer Maximum uptake of the lesion (with time for imaging post-injection) References
HER1 8B6 (monovalent) 99mTc 5.2 ± 0.5 %IA/cm3 (3 h) [26]
7C12 (monovalent) 99mTc 4.55 ± 0.24 %IA/cm3 (1 h) [26, 27]
7D12 (monovalent, bivalent) 99mTc 4.62 ± 0.36 %IA/cm3 (1 h and 3 h) [26, 27]
OA-cb6 (monovalent) 99mTc 2.93 ± 0.46 %ID/g (4 h) [28, 29]
HER2 2Rs15d (monovalent) 99mTc, 68Ga, 18F 4.23 ± 0.99 %IA/g (1 h) [23, 32]
11A4 (with IRDye 800CW) IRDye 800CW 1.8 ± 0.5 %ID/g (1 h) [33]
5F7GGC (monovalent) 131I, 18F 24.50 ± 9.89 %ID/g (8 h, 1 h) [84]
HER3 MSB0010853 (monovalent) 89Zr 6.2 ± 1.1 %ID/g (24 h) [34]
HGF 1E2 and 6E10 (fused to albumin) 89Zr 8.9% ± 1.0 %ID/g (unknown) [35]
CEA NbCEA5 (with humanized nanobody scaffold) 99mTc 7.09 ± 1.36 %IA/cm3 (1 h) [36]
MMR α-MMR Nb (monovalent) 99mTc 3.02 ± 0.10 %IA/g (3 h) [52]
MMR 3.49 (monovalent) 99mTc, 68Ga, 18F 2.40 ± 0.46 %IA/g (1 h) [42,43,44]
VCAM1 cAbVCAM1-5 (monovalent) 99mTc, 64Cu, 18F 2.99 ± 0.07 %ID/g (2 h) [45, 46]
VSIG4 NbV4m119 (monovalent) 99mTc 0.01–0.08 %IA/g (1 h and 3 h) [64, 65]
PD-L1 Nb109 (monovalent) 68Ga 4.94 ± 0.46 %ID/g (1 h) [69]
CAIX B9 (with IRDye 800CW) IRDye 800CW 4.6 ± 0.8 %ID/g (2 h) [41, 73]
  1. %IA/g: % injected activity per gram tissue, %ID/g: % injected dose of per gram tissue