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Table 2 Physical properties of different radionuclides used for PET image quality evaluation [8]

From: Evaluation of image quality with four positron emitters and three preclinical PET/CT systems

Radionuclide Physical half-life Branching ratio Max β+ energy (MeV) Maximum β+ range in water (mm) Prompt gamma branching ratio and energy
11C 20.4 min 0.998 0.960 4.2
68Ga 67.8 min 0.877 1.899 9.2 0.03, 1.08 meV
18F 109.8 min 0.969 0.634 2.4
89Zr 3.27 d 0.227 0.902 3.8 0.99, 909.2 keV