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Fig. 4 | EJNMMI Research

Fig. 4

From: Imaging-guided precision medicine in glioblastoma patients treated with immune checkpoint modulators: research trend and future directions in the field of imaging biomarkers and artificial intelligence

Fig. 4

Multimodal image-guided management using artificial intelligence in glioblastoma. This case illustrates the potential interest of imaging biomarkers extracted using artificial intelligence. Imaging of a patient with glioblastoma. a Baseline T1 post-contrast MRI prior to therapy demonstrating an enhancing lesion. b Baseline 18F-Dopa PET showing an increased amino acid uptake outside of the enhancing lesion on MRI. c Analysis of the MRI by artificial intelligence demonstrating areas with high heterogeneity (red) and low heterogeneity in normal healthy brain tissue (blue). This map is a parametric map of local entropy computed using the baseline T1 post-contrast MRI. The only limit in the analysis of the local heterogeneity/entropy is that contours/edge/interface are always heterogeneous. d Fused image of the Baseline 18F-Dopa PET (b) and of the parametric map of local entropy (c)

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