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Table 2 Changes in neuropsychological measures after epilepsy surgery

From: Correlation of neuropsychological and metabolic changes after epilepsy surgery in patients with left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis

Neuropsychological test Preoperative Postoperative p value
z-score Test score z-score Test score
RAVLT
 Sum (A1–A5) − 1.13 ± 1.76 36.85 ± 9.79 − 1.88 ± 1.16 34.00 ± 10.07 0.31
 Delayed recall − 2.43 ± 1.04 4.92 ± 2.47 − 2.11 ± 0.61 4.54 ± 1.85 0.53
 Recognition (+) − 1.40 ± 1.65 12.38 ± 2.57 − 1.63 ± 2.13 11.77 ± 2.80 0.35
RVDLT
 Sum (A1–A5) − 0.88 ± 1.16 28.75 ± 10.96 − 1.30 ± 1.38 28.67 ± 12.29 0.96
 Delayed recall − 1.82 ± 2.01 5.44 ± 2.06 − 1.23 ± 1.49 6.56 ± 3.47 0.53
 Recognition (+) − 0.34 ± 1.14 12.17 ± 1.64 − 0.94 ± 1.81 12.67 ± 2.10 0.39
Stroop Test − 3.24 ± 2.85 28.00 ± 31.96 − 2.89 ± 3.09 37.77 ± 34.09 0.18
Trail Making Test 0.93 ± 0.33 81.77 ± 8.49 1.15 ± 0.54 84.54 ± 11.53 0.27
Verbal fluency
 Letter fluency (NAK) − 1.39 ± 3.89 22.08 ± 10.77 − 0.51 ± 4.61 24.46 ± 12.82 0.29
 AVF (animal verbal fluency) − 1.96 ± 0.82 13.23 ± 4.15 − 1.74 ± 0.78 14.92 ± 4.37 0.20
Boston Naming Test − 3.88 ± 1.88 41.46 ± 6.59 − 4.07 ± 2.17 40.85 ± 8.17 0.70
Digit Span
 Forward − 0.98 ± 1.19 5.00 ± 1.05 − 0.27 ± 1.23 5.50 ± 0.97 0.14
 Backward − 1.68 ± 1.54 4.00 ± 1.41 − 2.10 ± 0.96 3.80 ± 0.92 0.56
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation
  2. Stroop Test—an interference measure was calculated by subtracting the average time needed to complete the first two subtasks from the time needed to complete the third subtask (Interference = Stroop III − [(Stroop I + Stroop II)/2])
  3. Trail Making Test—based on the direct time scores, derived scores were calculated as ratio score (B/A). p value is for a paired t test
  4. RAVLT Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, RVDLT Rey Visual Design Learning Test