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Table 1 Early and late scan median values (and range) of all parameters

From: The effect of post-injection 18F-FDG PET scanning time on texture analysis of peripheral nerve sheath tumours in neurofibromatosis-1

Texture feature Early scan median value—all tumours (range) Late scan median value—all tumours (range) ↑ or ↓ (all tumours) p value early vs late (all tumours) Correlation early vs late—all tumours (r and (p) values) ↑ or ↓ (benign) p value early vs late (benign) ↑ or ↓ (malignant) p value early vs late (malignant)
First-order texture features
ROI: mean 6226.9 (918.2–4039.2) 5773.3 (2646.8–55066.4) 0.19 0.81 (<0.001) 0.011 0.8
ROI: maximum 12881.2 (3571.6–120766.4) 15689.9 (4654.7–221719.7) 0.02 0.86 (<0.001) 0.15 0.081
ROI: minimum 1906.4 (157.1–15271.0) 1119.8 (154.7–15198.9) 0.001 0.53 (<0.001) 0.001 0.19
ROI: range 11757.5 (2135.7–119645.4) 14371.1 (2848.3–220643.8) 0.002 0.87 (<0.001) 0.01 0.043
ROI: standard deviation 2177.4 (444.2–19219.2) 2199.0 (502.3–26481.3) 0.015 0.86 (<0.001) 0.11 0.076
ROI: skewness 0.95 (−0.93–4.54) 3.04 (0.25–13.3) <0.001 0.05 (0.7) <0.001 <0.001
ROI: kurtosis 5.5 (3.7–26.2) 15.6 (10.1–71.1) <0.001 0.4 (0.003) <0.001 <0.001
ROI: coefficient of variation 0.57 (0.26–1.14) 1.72 (0.73–3.31) <0.001 0.65 (<0.001) <0.001 <0.001
ROI: median 5895.6 (833.1–37490.6) 5324.8 (2425.3–50631.2) 0.07 0.79 (<0.001) 0.002 0.98
ROI: 10th percentile 3822.0 (506.6–18913.7) 2692.1 (1295.6–24466.4) 0.002 0.63 (<0.001) <0.001 0.35
ROI: 25th percentile 4787.5 (637.2–24843.1) 3966.1 (1817.0–33982.6) 0.008 0.72 (<0.001) <0.001 0.69
ROI: 75th percentile 7148.3 (1074.9–52427.0) 7174.7 (3026.9–71854.5) 0.44 0.85 (<0.001) 0.041 0.69
ROI: 90th percentile 8691.3 (1414.5–68876.1) 8656.2 (3444.4–94054.6) 0.97 0.87 (<0.001) 0.17 0.38
ROI: entropy 5.75 (4.51–6.01) 5.71 (4.55–6.01) 0.34 0.53 (<0.001) 0.98 0.12
ROI: energy 0.0038 (0.0028–0.0397) 0.004 (0.0027–0.013) 0.53 0.52 (<0.001) 0.83 0.20
ROI: LoG entropy 1_5 5.12 (4.12–5.44) 5.02 (3.87–5.43) 0.002 0.6 (<0.001) 0.016 0.033
ROI: LoG entropy 2_0 5.14 (4.22–5.44) 5 (3.87–5.41) 0.004 0.57 (<0.001) 0.052 0.04
ROI: LoG entropy 2_5 5.15 (4.39–5.49) 5.11 (4.05–5.49) 0.071 0.61 (<0.001) 0.39 0.063
Metabolic active volume (cm3) 35.6 (3.3–303.9) 34.9 (3.5–301.4) 0.069 0.89 (<0.001) 0.39 0.29
Effective diameter (cm) 4.08 (1.84–8.34) 4.05 (1.98–8.32) 0.14 0.89 (<0.001) 0.59 0.29
SUV: mean 1.42 (0.5–8.89) 1.27 (0.41–9.1) 0.006 0.94 (<0.001) <0.001 0.89
SUV: total lesion glycolysis (TLG) 62.1 (2.6–2412.7) 47.2 (2.3–2321.5) 0.005 0.92 (<0.001) <0.001 0.55
SUV: peak 2.5 (0.7–23.4) 2.3 (0.7–23.3) 0.93 0.92 (<0.001) 0.032 0.30
SUV: maximum 3.1 (0.9–30.8) 3.5 (0.8–30.8) 0.036 0.93 (<0.001) 0.72 0.039
SUV: minimum 0.45 (0.09–3.35) 0.26 (0.03–3.27) <0.001 0.56 (<0.001) <0.001 0.15
SUV: range 2.6 (0.6–30.5) 3.2 (0.7–30.5) 0.002 0.92 (<0.001) 0.079 0.019
SUV: standard deviation 0.45 (0.12–5.05) 0.44 (0.12–5.12) 0.033 0.93 (<0.001) 0.704 0.092
SUV: skewness 0.54 (−0.52–2.54) 0.67 (−0.01–2.92) 0.002 0.05 (0.7) 0.037 0.014
SUV: kurtosis 3.1 (2.1–14.9) 3.4 (2.2–15.6) 0.003 0.4 (0.003) 0.090 0.005
SUV: coefficient of variation 0.31 (0.15–0.65) 0.38 (0.16–0.73) <0.001 0.65 (<0.001) 0.001 0.034
SUV: median 1.4 (0.5–8.4) 1.1 (0.4–8.7) 0.001 0.92 (<0.001) <0.001 0.61
SUV: 10th percentile 0.9 (0.3–3.9) 0.7 (0.3–3.9) <0.001 0.74 (<0.001) <0.001 0.12
SUV: 25th percentile 1.1 (0.4–4.9) 0.9 (0.3–5.4) <0.001 0.84 (<0.001) <0.001 0.21
SUV: 75th percentile 1.8 (0.6–12.3) 1.5 (0.5–12.6) 0.043 0.95 (<0.001) <0.001 0.73
SUV: 90th percentile 2.1 (0.7–15.8) 1.9 (0.6–16.1) 0.45 0.95 (<0.001) 0.001 0.35
SUV: entropy 0.8 (0.17–2.98) 0.81 (0.12–2.99) 0.033 0.85 (<0.001) 0.3 0.092
SUV: energy 0.5 (0.06–0.92) 0.5 (0.05–0.95) 0.053 0.83 (<0.001) 0.13 0.17
Second-order texture features
GLCM: autocorrelation 202.1 (50.8–432.5) 152.6 (29.6–295.2) <0.001 0.26 (0.6) 0.003 0.026
GLCM: cluster prominence 39992.1 (74471.1–118471.8) 33630.5 (4478.5–113080.7) 0.23 0.64 (<0.001) 0.2 0.73
GLCM: cluster shade 541.9 (−305.0–2242.1) 630.5 (−85.7–2134.6) 0.13 0.44 (0.001) 0.32 0.19
GLCM: contrast 36.3 (8.4–140.1) 41.2 (5.4–146.2) 0.39 0.58 (<0.001) 0.17 0.86
GLCM: correlation 0.99 (0.96–0.99) 0.98 (0.95–0.99) 0.01 0.68 (<0.001) 0.31 0.001
GLCM: difference entropy 2.56 (1.87–3.14) 2.62 (1.66–3.12) 0.83 0.57 (<0.001) 0.47 0.71
GLCM: difference variance 36.3 (8.4–140.1) 41.2 (5.4–146.2) 0.39 0.58 (<0.001) 0.17 0.86
GLCM: dissimilarity 4.71 (2.05–10.04) 5.04 (1.59–11.24) 0.93 0.6 (<0.001) 0.32 0.42
GLCM: energy 0.020 (0.008–0.06) 0.023 (0.007–0.1) 0.016 0.5 (<0.001) 0.033 0.25
GLCM: entropy 5.83 (4.39–6.34) 5.79 (4.17–6.44) 0.016 0.47 (<0.001) 0.090 0.097
GLCM: homogeneity 0.73 (0.53–0.89) 0.73 (0.5–0.91) 0.30 0.67 (<0.001) 0.12 0.80
GLCM: information measure correlation 1 −0.06 (−0.15--0.01) −0.05 (−0.17--0.01) 0.069 0.69 (<0.001) 0.047 0.48
GLCM: information measure correlation 2 0.99 (0.96–0.99) 0.98 (0.95–0.99) 0.005 0.62 (<0.001) 0.23 0.002
GLCM: inverse difference moment 0.73 (0.53–0.89) 0.73 (0.5–0.91) 0.30 0.67 (<0.001) 0.12 0.80
GLCM: inverse difference moment normalised 0.9992 (0.9974–0.9998) 0.9992 (0.9965–0.9998) 0.91 0.7 (<0.001) 0.31 0.28
GLCM: inverse difference normalised 0.98 (0.96–0.99) 0.98 (0.96–0.99) 0.48 0.68 (<0.001) 0.17 0.59
GLCM: maximum probability 0.05 (0.02–0.13) 0.05 (0.01–0.2) 0.081 0.42 (0.001) 0.15 0.36
GLCM: sum average 27.7 (13.1–40.9) 23.1 (9.8–33.5) <0.001 0.22 (0.1) 0.001 0.026
GLCM: sum entropy 3.71 (3.02–3.96) 3.65 (2.88–4.0) 0.004 0.51 (<0.001) 0.035 0.052
GLCM: sum of squares variance 221.2 (53.1–438.1) 160.2 (30.6–313.2) <0.001 0.27 (0.046) 0.002 0.034
GLCM: sum variance 654.4 (133.8–1468.2) 466.3 (72.8–984.9) 0.001 0.25 (0.064) 0.002 0.028
GLDM: mean 4.71 (2.05–10.04) 5.04 (1.59–11.24) 0.93 0.6 (<0.001) 0.32 0.42
GLDM: entropy 2.56 (1.87–3.14) 2.62 (1.66–3.12) 0.83 0.57 (<0.001) 0.47 0.71
GLDM: variance 13.5 (4.2–39.3) 15.8 (2.9–64.6) 0.21 0.59 (<0.001) 0.21 0.65
GLDM: contrast 36.3 (8.4–140.1) 41.2 (5.4–146.2) 0.39 0.58 (<0.001) 0.17 0.86
High-order texture features
GLRL: short run emphasis 0.29 (0.17–0.71) 0.29 (0.16–0.77) 0.007 0.8 (<0.001) 0.090 0.034
GLRL: long run emphasis 209.6 (66.8–415.0) 164.6 (41.9–280.1) <0.001 0.22 (0.11) 0.003 0.015
GLRL: grey-level nonuniformity 8082.9 (975.1–73005.3) 7639.5 (991.0–65663.1) 0.54 0.88 (<0.001) 0.83 0.67
GLRL: run length nonuniformity 917.6 (158.9–6079.5) 947.5 (147.8–6787.9) 0.023 0.87 (<0.001) 0.10 0.12
GLRL: run percentage 0.91 (0.65–0.98) 0.91 (0.59–0.99) 0.17 0.75 (<0.001) 0.24 0.53
GLRL: low grey-level run emphasis 0.93 (0.76–0.98) 0.93 (0.7–0.99) 0.31 0.75 (<0.001) 0.29 0.71
GLRL: high grey-level run emphasis 40.9 (7.4–425.5) 35.4 (7.42–315.5) 0.87 0.86 (<0.001) 0.70 0.93
GLRL: short run low grey-level emphasis 0.08 (0.04–0.18) 0.09 (0.04–0.17) 0.027 0.61 (<0.001) 0.34 0.024
GLRL: short run high grey-level emphasis 40.0 (4.4–424.2) 34.2 (5.5–314.2) 0.94 0.87 (<0.001) 0.80 0.95
GLRL: long run low grey-level emphasis 184.9 (44.6–377.7) 141.0 (26.0–251.9) <0.001 0.18 (0.19) 0.004 0.021
GLRL: long run high grey-level emphasis 924.6 (279.4–3387.9) 711.4 (336.0–2341.7) <0.001 0.66 (<0.001) 0.003 0.002
GLRL: intensity variability 945001.0 (20680.9–68924026.0) 921355.2 (22561.0–56722816.4) 0.46 0.87 (<0.001) 0.3 0.78
GLRL: run length variability 92938.6 (3597.7–5739641.7) 103541.0 (3494.2–4675872.2) 0.016 0.86 (<0.001) 0.008 0.28
GLSZM: short zone emphasis 0.02 (0.01–0.08) 0.02 (0.01–0.06) 0.47 0.44 (0.001) 0.41 0.93
GLSZM: long zone emphasis 253.9 (126.6–384.9) 229.9 (129.6–327.8) 0.015 0.36 (0.007) 0.035 0.18
GLSZM: intensity nonuniformity 97.4 (22.7–654.4) 128.9 (33.11–594.0) 0.18 0.61 (<0.001) 0.2 0.46
GLSZM: zone length nonuniformity 25.6 (10.2–180.1) 35.8 (10.2–200.0) 0.28 0.72 (<0.001) 0.34 0.65
GLSZM: zone percentage 0.068 (0.018–0.313) 0.071 (0.018–0.335) 0.006 0.79 (<0.001) 0.075 0.028
GLSZM: low-intensity zone emphasis 0.39 (0.28–0.54) 0.41 (0.31–0.6) 0.001 0.63 (<0.001) 0.001 0.29
GLSZM: high-intensity zone emphasis 4108.4 (45.4–43861.1) 4043.2 (31.4–38723.0) 0.049 0.79 (<0.001) 0.63 0.037
GLSZM: short zone low-intensity emphasis 0.0048 (0.0016–0.0535) 0.0053 (0.0017–0.0355) 0.83 0.52 (<0.001) 0.25 0.46
GLSZM: short zone high-intensity emphasis 33.0 (1.5–3423.9) 72.9 (0.45–4921.8) 0.59 0.74 (<0.001) 0.59 0.73
GLSZM: long zone low-intensity emphasis 100.8 (56.8–150.4) 104.3 (54.2–167.0) 0.40 0.34 (0.11) 0.59 0.51
GLSZM: long zone high-intensity emphasis 599829.4 (2743.9–11949368.6) 322428.3 (5079.9–3059584.4) <0.001 0.81 (<0.001) 0.001 0.016
GLSZM: intensity variability 231.6 (29.5–3815.9) 353.3 (50.2–3591.3) 0.19 0.62 (<0.001) 0.18 0.57
GLSZM: size zone variability 56.2 (13.8–869.2) 101.9 (17.3–1066.3) 0.26 0.67 (<0.001) 0.19 0.69
NGTDM: coarseness 7.1 (4.3–17.4) 6.6 (4.0–15.3) 0.087 0.79 (<0.001) 0.48 0.092
NGTDM: contrast 0.14 (0.02–0.59) 0.12 (0.01–0.46) 0.16 0.53 (<0.001) 0.31 0.33
NGTDM: busyness 4.2 (0.7–32.9) 4.7 (0.8–33.3) 0.007 0.89 (<0.001) 0.006 0.2
NGTDM: complexity 0.09 (0.01–2) 0.11 (0–1.55) 0.66 0.89 (<0.001) 0.94 0.59
NGTDM: texture strength 0.33 (0.03–1.93) 0.35 (0.04–1.84) 0.086 0.83 (<0.001) 0.066 0.48
Model-based texture features
FD: fractal dimension mean 3.23 (2.85–4.14) 3.23 (2.85–4.09) 0.67 0.87 (<0.001) 0.89 0.65
FD: SD 0.37 (0.2–1.31) 0.44 (0.22–1.92) 0.018 0.74 (<0.001) 0.063 0.15
FD: lacunarity 0.02 (0–0.73) 0.02 (0.01–0.63) 0.006 0.72 (<0.001) 0.003 0.44
FD: Hurst exponent 0.33 (0.06–1.62) 0.34 (0.03–1.69) 0.73 0.55 (<0.001) 0.21 0.39
FD: blanket mean 3.91 (2.66–4.98) 3.64 (2.65–4.89) 0.014 0.69 (<0.001) 0.009 0.49
FD: inverse 0.31 (0.24–0.35) 0.31 (0.24–0.35) 0.85 0.77 (<0.001) 0.83 0.99
  1. For significant differences between early and late scans, an increase (↑) or decrease (↓) in parameter value with time post-injection is shown. ROI: LoG entropy 1_5, 2_0 and 2_5 represent entropy values calculated for a ROI after applying Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) transformation with a point spread function of standard deviation 1_5, 2_0, 2_5 mm
  2. ROI region of interest, LoG Laplacian of Gaussian, SUV standardised uptake value, FD fractal dimension, GLCM grey-level co-occurrence matrix, GLDM grey-level difference matrix, GLRL grey-level run length matrix, GLSZM grey-level size zone matrix, NGTDM neighbourhood grey-tone difference matrix