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Table 1 Histological assessment criteria for renal damage (adapted from Rolleman et. al, EJNMMI 2007 [16])

From: Nephroprotective effects of enalapril after [177Lu]-DOTATATE therapy using serial renal scintigraphies in a murine model of radiation-induced nephropathy

Grade Overview Glomeruli Tubules
Mild More or less normal aspect Apoptosis of endothelium cells Apoptotic cells
High glomerular cell count Inflammatory infiltrate Rough protein staining
Little dilation
Normal basal membrane
No proteine cylinders
Moderate Tubular dilation Same as grade 1 More apoptotic cells
Tubular cell damage More pronounced dilation
  Thickened basal membrane
Little tubular protein cylinders
Regenerating cells (mitotic activity)
Pronounced Stronger tubular dilation Smaller vascular lumina, few erythrocytes Flat epithelium
Cell-rich infiltrate Partly, complete loss of epithelium
Regenerating tubules Stronger dilation
Inflammatory infiltrate
Regeneration present
More thickened basal membrane
Severe Severe tubular dilation Same as grade 3 Same as grade 3, but more empty cylinders
More optical empty space due to glomerular shrinkage Peripheral fibrosis