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Table 2 Summary of the main studies that have evaluated tail vein extravasation

From: Quantifying and correcting for tail vein extravasation in small animal PET scans in cancer research: is there an impact on therapy assessment?

  Vines et al. Chang et al. Groman et al.
Animal model Mice originally used for various oncology studies Human HCT116 colon cancer xenografted nude mice (female, Charles River Laboratory) Albino mice (males, 15 to 20 g, Swiss CD-1(ICR)BR, Charles River Laboratory)
Number of animals 50 12 30
Injection method In-house needle catheters 30-gauge needles insert into 15 cm of polyethylene 10 tubing with a Blunt 30-gauge Luer-lock hub 29.5-gauge Terumo insulin syringe Needle without precision
Tracer 18F-FDG 18F-FPP(RGD)2 Mixed of two reagents: 99mTc-EB1 and colloid gold
Injected activity 2–9 MBq over 20–30 s 1.9–3.8 MBq -
Injected volume 170 μL 100 μL 100 μL of mixture
Misinjection frequency and assessment 7/50 (14.0 %) 4/23 (17.4 %) 12/30 (40.0 %)
Intermediate or poor injection based on qualitative assessment Visual inspection Injection efficiency <90 % based on quantitative assessment
Quantitative evaluation Mean %ID/g on tail ranging from 2.4 to 28.4 Percentage-intended dose not injected ranging from 0.5 to 9.1 % Percentage-intended dose not injected ranging from 12 to 63 %