Power curves as a function of the treatment effect ( δ ). Simulation settings S1 and S2 are as shown in Figure
2. In S1 (left),
, and in S2 (right),
. The solid blue and black lines represent the theoretical power curves for
i, respectively (see derivations in Additional file
3), while the solid cyan lines show the power improvement. The dotted cyan line shows the peak simulated improvement in power for the two settings S1 and S2 at δ = 0.25 and δ = 0.18, respectively.