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Table 1 Phosphatidylserine-based radiolabelled molecular imaging probes

From: Transbilayer phospholipids molecular imaging

Molecular target Molecular probes AA MW (kDa) Affinity (M) Biological functions Isotopes Imaging techniques
PS a annexin V 319 36 10-9 apoptosis, necrosis, thrombosis 99mTc, 123I, 111In, 67Ga, 18F, 68Ga, 124I, 64Cu, 94mTc SPECT(CT), PET(CT)
PS C2A domain of synaptotagmin I 128 12 10-9 apoptosis, necrosis 99mTc SPECT(CT)
       18F PET(CT)
PS b bavituximab chimeric antibody - 145.3 10-9 tumour endothelium vasculature imaging 74As c PET(CT)
      tumour endothelium vasculature therapy 77As d SPECT(CT)
PS hypericin - 0.504 - necrosis 99mTc, 123I, 131I
64Cu e
PS lactadherin 364 47 - 50 10-9 apoptosis 99mTc f SPECT(CT)
PS PSBP-6 14 1.623 10-9 apoptosis, necrosis 99mTc g SPECT(CT)
  1. a Various linkers have been used for the radiolabelling of annexin V [26]. HYNIC is the most used bifunctional chelating agent in preclinical and clinical research. b β2 glycoprotein I domain of phosphatidylserine. c 74As, β + emitter (T 1/2 = 17.8 days). d 77As, β- emitter (T 1/2 = 1.6 days). e Bis-DOTA has been used as a bifunctional chelating agent for radiolabelling of hypericin. f HYNIC has been used as a bifunctional chelating agent for radiolabelling of lactadherin. g SAAC has been used as a single amino acid chelator for radiolabelling of PSBP-6. AA, amino acids; MW, molecular weight; PET(CT), positron emission tomography (computed tomography); PS, phosphatidylserine; PSBP-6, PS-binding peptide-6; SPECT(CT), single-photon emission computed tomography (computed tomography).